Study of computers and computing, including their theories, algorithms, hardware, and software. Computer science includes algorithms and data structures, computer and network design, modeling data and information processes, and artificial intelligence.

Computer science draws some of its foundations from mathematics and engineering. Therefore, it incorporates techniques from areas such as queueing theory, probability and statistics, and electronic circuit design. As a result of its concepts, designs, measurements, and refinements, computer science makes use of hypothesis testing and experimentation.

Software engineering, information systems, information technology, and computer engineering are all related to computer science. This family come to be know collectively as the discipline of computing. These five disciplines are interrelate in the sense that computing is their object of study. However, they are separate since each has its own research perspective and curricular focus.

Since 1991 the Association for Computing Machinery ACM, the IEEE Computer Society IEEE-CS, and the Association for Information Systems AIS have collaborated to develop and update the taxonomy of these five interrelated disciplines and the guidelines that educational institutions worldwide use for their undergraduate, graduate, and research programs.

## Development Of Computer Science

Computer science emerged as an independent discipline in the early 1960s. However, the electronic digital computer that is the object of its study invent two decades earlier. The roots of computer science lie primarily in the related fields of mathematics, electrical engineering, physics, and management information systems.

Electrical engineering provides the basics of circuit design namely, the idea that electrical impulses input to a circuit can be combined using Boolean algebra to produce arbitrary outputs.

Management information systems, originally called data processing systems, provided early ideas from which various computer science concepts such as sorting, searching, databases, information retrieval, and graphical user interfaces evolved.

## Algorithms And Complexity Computer

An algorithm is a specific procedure for solving a well-defined computational problem. Algorithm development and analysis is fundamental to all aspects of computer science: artificial intelligence, databases, graphics, networking, operating systems, security, etc. Algorithm development is more than just programming.

It requires an understanding of the alternatives available to solving a computational problem. This includes the hardware, networking, programming language, and performance constraints that accompany any particular solution. Moreover, an algorithm must solve the problem fully and efficiently in order to be correct.

An accompanying notion is the design of a particular data structure that enables an algorithm to run efficiently. Although data items are store consecutively in memory, they may be link together by pointers essentially, memory addresses stored with an item to indicate where the next item or items in the structure are find so that the data can be organize in ways similar to those in which they will be access. The simplest such structure is call the link list, in which noncontiguous store items may be access in a pre-specify order by following the pointers from one item in the list to the next.

## Architecture And Organization

The architecture of a computer consists of the components that store and run programs, transmit data, and enable people and computers to interact. Computers architects use parallelism and various strategies for memory organization to design computing systems with very high performance. Computer architecture requires strong communication between computers scientists and computer engineers, since they both focus fundamentally on hardware design.

Input and output controllers, arithmetic logic units, memory units, and control units make up a computer. The ALU performs simple addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and logic operations, such as OR and AND. The memory stores the programâ€™s instructions and data. The control ALU operations are use to carry out instructions using data retrieved from memory.

## Computational Computer Science

Computational science applies computers simulation, scientific visualization, mathematical modeling, algorithms, data structures, networking, database design, symbolic computation, and high-performance computing to advance the goals of various disciplines.

These disciplines include biology, chemistry, fluid dynamics, archaeology, finance, sociology, and forensics. Computational science has evolved rapidly, especially because of the dramatic growth in the volume of data transmitted from scientific instruments. This phenomenon has been called the big data problem.

The mathematical methods needed for computational science require the transformation of equations and functions from the continuous to the discrete. For example, the computer integration of a function over an interval is completed by applying integral calculus.

As an alternative, it can instead be approximated by considering the area under the graph of the function as the sum of the areas obtained from evaluating the function at discrete points in the graph.